Arizona Fly Fishing

When you think of the state of Arizona, often the first thing that comes to mind is the desert landscape, incredible scenery, relaxing spas, and the amazing golfing opportunities. Well, here’s a little secret about the state: it’s also an ideal place to take part in fly fishing. In fact, you can make a real vacation out of it and tie the fishing in with other outdoor recreation activities. The fact that Arizona stays warm all year round makes this a flexible destination for anglers as well, as you’ll never find yourself having to fight the cold outdoors.

So, let’s take a closer look at what makes Arizona such a great destination for fly fishing.

Arizona Trout Fishing Map

loading map - please wait...

AZ - Black River: 33.738010, -109.364349
AZ - Lower Canyon Creek : 34.256401, -110.795959
AZ - Oak Creek: 34.874786, -111.755043
AZ - Silver Creek: 34.340038, -109.949554
AZ - White River: 33.789383, -109.997307
CHINLE CREEK NEAR MEXICAN WATER, AZ: 36.943891, -109.710668
COLORADO RIVER AT LEES FERRY, AZ: 36.864710, -111.588216
PARIA RIVER AT LEES FERRY, AZ: 36.872210, -111.594605
LITTLE COLORADO RIVER AT GREER, AZ: 34.016714, -109.457313
SOUTH FORK LITTLE COLORADO RIVER NEAR GREER, AZ: 34.055500, -109.401167
WATER CANYON CREEK NEAR EAGAR, AZ: 34.058000, -109.296333
NUTRIOSO CREEK ABV NELSON RES NR SPRINGERVILLE, AZ: 34.030327, -109.186471
LITTLE COLORADO R ABV LYMAN LAKE NR ST. JOHNS, AZ: 34.314486, -109.362315
LYMAN LAKE NEAR ST. JOHNS, AZ: 34.374484, -109.384818
LITTLE COLORADO RIVER BELOW SALADO SPRINGS, AZ: 34.450594, -109.362320
LITTLE COLORADO RVR ABV ZION RES. NR ST. JOHNS, AZ: 34.583646, -109.407047
LITTLE COLORADO RVR BLW ZION RES. NR ST JOHNS, AZ: 34.604754, -109.489274
SHOW LOW CREEK NEAR LAKESIDE, AZ: 34.179488, -109.987886
LITTLE COLORADO RIVER AT WOODRUFF, AZ: 34.782808, -110.044284
PUERCO RIVER NEAR CHAMBERS, AZ: 35.182246, -109.447051
LITTLE COLORADO RIVER AT HOLBROOK, AZ: 34.897804, -110.163177
LITTLE COLORADO RIVER NEAR JOSEPH CITY, AZ: 34.901137, -110.255401
CHEVELON FORK BELOW WILDCAT CANYON, NR WINSLOW, AZ: 34.636420, -110.714296
JACKS CANYON CREEK NEAR WINSLOW, AZ: 34.921411, -110.797636
LITTLE COLORADO RIVER NEAR WINSLOW, AZ: 35.011688, -110.651244
POLACCA WASH NEAR SECOND MESA, AZ: 35.655840, -110.562079
NEWMAN CANYON ABOVE UPPER LAKE MARY, AZ: 35.054944, -111.489222
DINNEBITO WASH NEAR SAND SPRINGS, AZ: 35.781113, -110.933196
MOENKOPI WASH AT MOENKOPI, AZ: 36.104993, -111.201807
PASTURE CANYON SPRINGS NEAR TUBA CITY, AZ: 36.171389, -111.201111
LITTLE COLORADO RIVER NEAR CAMERON, AZ: 35.926382, -111.567368
LITTLE COLORADO RIVER ABV MOUTH NR DESERT VIEW, AZ: 36.195264, -111.777102
COLORADO RIVER NEAR GRAND CANYON, AZ: 36.101372, -112.086280
KANAB CREEK ABOVE THE MOUTH NEAR SUPAI, AZ: 36.395816, -112.631857
CATARACT CREEK AT REDLANDS CROSSING NEAR VALLE, AZ: 35.804444, -112.426389
CATARACT CREEK BELOW HEATHER WASH NEAR SUPAI, AZ: 36.040000, -112.546667
CATARACT CREEK BELOW TOPOCOBA GORGE NEAR SUPAI, AZ: 36.183333, -112.650000
HAVASU CREEK AT SUPAI, AZ: 36.219467, -112.690100
HAVASU CREEK ABOVE THE MOUTH, NEAR SUPAI, AZ: 36.305816, -112.761305
COLORADO RVR ABV DIAMOND CREEK NR PEACH SPRINGS AZ: 35.773599, -113.363544
DIAMOND CREEK NEAR PEACH SPRINGS, AZ: 35.764988, -113.368266
SPENCER CREEK NEAR PEACH SPRINGS, AZ: 35.799900, -113.655350
TRUXTON WASH NEAR VALENTINE, AZ: 35.384162, -113.657719
VIRGIN RV ABV THE NARROWS NR LITTLEFIELD, AZ: 36.921089, -113.831909
BEAVER DAM WASH AT BEAVER DAM, AZ: 36.901921, -113.933577
VIRGIN RV AT LITTLEFIELD, AZ: 36.891644, -113.924410
MESQUITE CANAL NR MESQUITE, NV: 36.809889, -114.014750
COLORADO RIVER BELOW DAVIS DAM, AZ-NV: 35.191666, -114.572188
TOPOCK MARSH INLET NEAR NEEDLES, CA: 34.836116, -114.584964
BURRO CREEK AT OLD US 93 BRIDGE, NEAR BAGDAD, AZ: 34.541684, -113.445205
BIG SANDY RIVER NEAR WIKIEUP, AZ: 34.462517, -113.624377
UPPER LITTLE SYCAMORE WASH NEAR BAGDAD, AZ: 34.570739, -113.067561
LITTLE SYCAMORE WASH NEAR BAGDAD, AZ: 34.549167, -113.057778
SANTA MARIA RIVER NEAR BAGDAD, AZ: 34.305854, -113.347144
BILL WILLIAMS RIVER BELOW ALAMO DAM, AZ: 34.230854, -113.608820
BILL WILLIAMS RIVER NEAR PARKER, AZ: 34.262516, -114.027721
COLORADO RIVER BELOW PARKER DAM, AZ-CA: 34.295570, -114.140225
GARDNER LATERAL SPILL NEAR PARKER, AZ: 34.027795, -114.433566
POSTON WASTEWAY NEAR POSTON, AZ: 33.999462, -114.445511
PALO VERDE DRAIN NEAR PARKER, AZ: 33.756965, -114.497455
CRIR LWR MAIN DRAIN BLW TYSON WW, NR EHRENBERG, AZ: 33.731633, -114.503983
COLORADO RIVER BELOW PALO VERDE DAM, AZ-CA: 33.719466, -114.498011
PVID D23 SPILL NEAR BLYTHE, CA: 33.491694, -114.603567
COLORADO RIVER BELOW IMPERIAL DAM, AZ-CA: 32.883098, -114.466615
COLORADO RIVER BELOW LAGUNA DAM, AZ-CA: 32.812267, -114.514949
GILA RIVER NEAR REDROCK, NM: 32.726944, -108.675556
GILA RIVER BELOW BLUE CREEK, NEAR VIRDEN, NM: 32.648132, -108.845891
GILA RIVER AT DUNCAN, AZ: 32.724444, -109.099167
GILA RIVER NEAR CLIFTON, AZ: 32.965278, -109.308611
MINERAL CREEK NEAR GLENWOOD, NM: 33.420611, -108.825944
WHITEWATER CREEK AT CATWALK NRT, NEAR GLENWOOD, NM: 33.374944, -108.837083
SAN FRANCISCO RIVER NEAR GLENWOOD, NM: 33.247167, -108.880000
BLUE RIVER NEAR CLIFTON, AZ.: 33.290895, -109.196183
SAN FRANCISCO RIVER AT CLIFTON, AZ.: 33.049508, -109.295905
EAGLE CREEK ABOVE PUMPING PLANT, NEAR MORENCI, AZ.: 33.064506, -109.442298
BONITA CREEK NEAR MORENCI, AZ.: 32.955618, -109.531188
GILA RIVER AT HEAD OF SAFFORD VALLEY, NR SOLOMON,: 32.868397, -109.511186
FRYE CREEK NEAR THATCHER, AZ: 32.743957, -109.838136
GILA RIVER AT CALVA, AZ.: 33.185613, -110.220090
SAN CARLOS RIVER NEAR PERIDOT, AZ.: 33.296447, -110.451488
GILA RIVER BELOW COOLIDGE DAM, AZ.: 33.169506, -110.531211
SAN PEDRO RIVER AT PALOMINAS, AZ.: 31.380101, -110.111188
BANNING CREEK NEAR BISBEE, AZ: 31.503472, -110.005278
RAMSEY CANYON NEAR SIERRA VISTA, AZ: 31.446667, -110.305833
GARDEN CANYON NEAR FORT HUACHUCA, AZ.: 31.472875, -110.347859
SAN PEDRO AT LEWIS SPRINGS: 31.554444, -110.140000
SAN PEDRO RIVER AT CHARLESTON, AZ.: 31.625926, -110.174523
HUACHUCA CANYON NEAR FORT HUACHUCA, AZ: 31.518056, -110.387222
UPPER BABOCOMARI RIVER NEAR HUACHUCA CITY, AZ: 31.635000, -110.424722
BABOCOMARI RIVER NEAR TOMBSTONE, AZ.: 31.700278, -110.226389
SAN PEDRO RIVER NEAR TOMBSTONE, AZ: 31.750922, -110.201188
SAN PEDRO R AT REDINGTON BRIDGE NR REDINGTON, AZ: 32.446183, -110.488418
ARAVAIPA CREEK NEAR MAMMOTH, AZ.: 32.844233, -110.630100
GILA RIVER AT KELVIN, AZ.: 33.102840, -110.976501
QUEEN CREEK BELOW WHITLOW DAM NR SUPERIOR, AZ.: 33.299221, -111.277626
GILA RIVER NEAR MARICOPA, AZ.: 33.168661, -112.007365
SANTA CRUZ RIVER NEAR NOGALES, AZ.: 31.344544, -110.851474
NOGALES WASH AT NOGALES, AZ: 31.343272, -110.931672
SANTA CRUZ RIVER AT TUBAC, AZ.: 31.612868, -111.041479
SANTA CRUZ RIVER AT CONTINENTAL, AZ: 31.871473, -110.980091
SANTA CRUZ RIVER AT TUCSON, AZ: 32.221187, -110.981759
SABINO CREEK NEAR TUCSON, AZ.: 32.316742, -110.810367
TANQUE VERDE CREEK AT TUCSON, AZ.: 32.265353, -110.841199
CIENEGA CREEK NEAR SONOITA, AZ.: 31.865556, -110.570000
BARREL CANYON NEAR SONOITA, AZ: 31.861751, -110.691193
PANTANO WASH NEAR VAIL, AZ.: 32.035914, -110.677582
RINCON CREEK NEAR TUCSON, AZ.: 32.129523, -110.625914
PANTANO WASH AT BROADWAY BLVD. AT TUCSON, AZ.: 32.220632, -110.829531
RILLITO CREEK AT DODGE BOULEVARD, AT TUCSON, AZ.: 32.271464, -110.914535
RILLITO CREEK AT LA CHOLLA BLVD NEAR TUCSON, AZ.: 32.303408, -111.012041
CANADA DEL ORO BLW INA ROAD, NEAR TUCSON, AZ.: 32.336185, -111.042043
SANTA CRUZ RIVER AT CORTARO, AZ: 32.351185, -111.094545
SANTA CRUZ RIVER AT TRICO ROAD, NR MARANA, AZ.: 32.471459, -111.307607
ALTAR WASH NEAR THREE POINTS, AZ.: 31.838972, -111.404269
BRAWLEY WASH NEAR THREE POINTS, AZ.: 32.075634, -111.338716
SANTA CRUZ RIVER NEAR LAVEEN, AZ.: 33.232270, -112.169593
BLACK RVR BLW PUMPING PLANT, NR POINT OF PINES, AZ: 33.476720, -109.763978
BLACK RIVER NEAR FORT APACHE, AZ.: 33.712829, -110.211767
EAST FORK WHITE RIVER NEAR FORT APACHE, AZ.: 33.822272, -109.814541
WHITE RIVER NEAR FORT APACHE, AZ.: 33.736441, -110.166767
CARRIZO CREEK NEAR SHOW LOW, AZ.: 33.985881, -110.280942
SALT RIVER NEAR CHRYSOTILE, AZ: 33.798106, -110.499829
CIBECUE CREEK NEAR OVERGAARD, AZ: 34.157222, -110.511111
CIBECUE CREEK NEAR CHRYSOTILE, AZ: 33.843105, -110.557609
CHERRY CREEK NEAR GLOBE, AZ: 33.827826, -110.856227
PINAL CREEK AT INSPIRATION DAM, NR GLOBE, AZ.: 33.573107, -110.901225
SALT RIVER NEAR ROOSEVELT, AZ: 33.619495, -110.921504
PINTO CREEK ABOVE HAUNTED CANYON NR MIAMI, AZ: 33.405833, -110.998611
PINTO CREEK BLW HAUNTED CANYON NR MIAMI, AZ: 33.418665, -111.009561
PINTO CREEK NEAR MIAMI, AZ: 33.487830, -110.995394
SOUTH FORK PARKER CREEK NEAR ROOSEVELT, AZ: 33.797270, -110.960395
TONTO CREEK ABOVE GUN CREEK, NEAR ROOSEVELT, AZ: 33.980041, -111.303466
SALT RIVER BLW STEWART MOUNTAIN DAM, AZ.: 33.552823, -111.576524
WILLIAMSON VALLEY WASH NEAR PAULDEN, AZ: 34.866687, -112.613231
DEL RIO SPRINGS NEAR CHINO VALLEY, AZ: 34.825577, -112.444615
GRANITE CREEK AT PRESCOTT, AZ: 34.551969, -112.462391
GRANITE CREEK NEAR PRESCOTT, AZ: 34.563080, -112.444891
GRANITE CREEK BELOW WATSON LAKE NEAR PRESCOTT, AZ: 34.613611, -112.417222
VERDE RIVER NEAR PAULDEN, AZ: 34.895020, -112.342947
VERDE RIVER NEAR CLARKDALE, AZ: 34.852242, -112.065994
OAK CREEK NEAR SEDONA, AZ: 34.861684, -111.761823
OAK CREEK NEAR CORNVILLE, AZ: 34.764464, -111.890989
WET BEAVER CREEK NEAR RIMROCK, AZ: 34.674744, -111.672094
DRY BEAVER CREEK NEAR RIMROCK, AZ: 34.728631, -111.775708
WEST CLEAR CREEK NEAR CAMP VERDE, AZ: 34.538636, -111.694036
VERDE RIVER NEAR CAMP VERDE, AZ: 34.448361, -111.789871
FOSSIL CREEK NEAR STRAWBERRY, AZ: 34.394306, -111.630000
EAST VERDE R DIV FROM EAST CLEAR CR NR PINE, AZ: 34.417807, -111.263747
EAST VERDE RIVER NEAR CHILDS, AZ: 34.276421, -111.638756
VERDE RIVER BELOW EAST VERDE RIVER NEAR CHILDS, AZ: 34.263558, -111.681528
WET BOTTOM CREEK NEAR CHILDS, AZ: 34.160868, -111.692924
VERDE RVR BLW TANGLE CREEK, ABV HORSESHOE DAM, AZ: 34.073092, -111.716257
VERDE RIVER BELOW BARTLETT DAM, AZ: 33.808375, -111.663473
SYCAMORE CREEK NEAR FORT MCDOWELL, AZ: 33.694211, -111.541802
VERDE RIVER NEAR SCOTTSDALE, AZ: 33.558656, -111.669304
INDIAN BEND WASH AT CURRY ROAD, TEMPE, AZ.: 33.440323, -111.915143
SALT RIVER AT PRIEST DRIVE NEAR PHOENIX, AZ.: 33.439489, -111.960978
CAVE CREEK BLW COTTONWOOD CR NEAR CAVE CREEK, AZ.: 33.887260, -111.954039
AGUA FRIA RIVER NEAR HUMBOLDT, AZ: 34.485278, -112.237500
AGUA FRIA RIVER NEAR MAYER, AZ: 34.315307, -112.064046
AGUA FRIA RIVER NEAR ROCK SPRINGS, AZ: 34.015589, -112.167938
NEW RIVER NEAR ROCK SPRINGS, AZ.: 33.974202, -112.099046
SKUNK CREEK NEAR PHOENIX, AZ: 33.729205, -112.119876
GILA RIVER AT ESTRELLA PARKWAY, NEAR GOODYEAR, AZ.: 33.387543, -112.392381
HASSAYAMPA RIVER NEAR MORRISTOWN, AZ.: 33.885032, -112.662120
HASSAYAMPA RIVER NEAR ARLINGTON, AZ: 33.347264, -112.725726
CENTENNIAL WASH AT SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRDG: 33.310320, -112.881842
GILA R BLW GILLESPIE DAM, AZ (LOW-FLOW STATION): 33.229210, -112.767393
GILA RIVER BELOW PAINTED ROCK DAM, AZ: 33.075046, -113.014622
GILA RIVER NEAR DATELAND, AZ: 32.882269, -113.541306
GILA RIVER NEAR DOME, AZ: 32.760879, -114.420502
COLORADO R BLW YUMA MAIN CANAL WW AT YUMA, AZ: 32.731714, -114.632731
GILA MONSTER FARMS TURNOUT NO. 1 NEAR YUMA, AZ: 32.745000, -114.478889
GILA MONSTER FARMS TURNOUT NO. 2 NEAR YUMA, AZ: 32.743889, -114.461667
CITY OF YUMA DIVERSION AT AVENUE 9E PUMPING PLANT: 32.678889, -114.478611
COACHELLA CANAL NEAR NILAND, CA: 33.090596, -115.450263
COACHELLA CANAL NEAR DESERT BEACH, CA: 33.538081, -115.918608
COCOPAH DIVERSION FROM WEST MAIN CANAL NR SOMERTON: 32.618333, -114.761667
GILA DRAIN NO. 1 NEAR YUMA, AZ: 32.758935, -114.522450
BRUCE CHURCH WASTEWAY NEAR YUMA, AZ: 32.715325, -114.533561
WELLTON-MOHAWK MAIN OUTLET DRAIN NR YUMA, AZ: 32.742546, -114.436891
RESERVATION MAIN DRAIN NO. 4 NEAR YUMA, AZ: 32.737269, -114.621897
DRAIN 8-B NEAR WINTERHAVEN, CA: 32.746158, -114.694399
LESLIE CREEK NEAR MCNEAL, AZ.: 31.590096, -109.508956
WHITEWATER DRAW NEAR DOUGLAS, AZ.: 31.352325, -109.585068
Home: 33.227792, -111.793866

Get the DIY Fly Fishing App to get turn-by-turn directions to access points shown on the map above and real-time stream flow conditions.

Best Fly Fishing in Arizona

The state of Arizona offers a large number of creeks, streams, and lakes that are ideal locations for fly fishing. What's really unique about the fishing here is that some of these waters are located in urban cities. This is a stark difference compared to what most anglers may be used to. It's hard to cover off all the spots in the state but there are a handful that really stand out and are not to be missed.

Lees Ferry

If you're planning to check out the Grand Canyon while in Arizona, then Lees Ferry can act as the perfect spot for fishing. This is located not far from Page, near the head of the canyon. Here, the Colorado River offers great fishing any time of the year as the water temperature stays very consistent. You'll also love the fact that the water is so clear. As far as what kind of weather to expect, in the winter the temperatures dip as low as 20 degrees, and in the summer they hit as high as 110 degrees. With that said, spring and fall tend to be the most comfortable times to visit the area. This is the perfect river for catching rainbow trout. Some of the gear and equipment you'll want to bring along includes dry flies for use in the summer, or you can always opt for streamers which will get you through all four seasons. As for leaders, it is recommended you go with nine feet.

The Imperial Reservoir

If it's bass you're after, then you can find them at the Imperial Reservoir. This reservoir is located upriver in Yuma County by passing through the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge. It is a man-made reservoir. It's not unusual to find bass weighing in at a lofty 12 pounds or more.

Oak Creek

People often pick Sedona as a destination when traveling to Arizona, which can also be thought of as a great spot for trout fishing. Oak Creek runs through the middle of the town and the water in the creek comes straight from the Oak Creek Canyon, which is spring water. Trout, in particular rainbow and wild brown trout, love the cold temperatures of the creek, and anglers love how clear it is. If you're looking for a challenge, you can visit the pools and riffles, which give you an opportunity to try some advanced techniques. It's hard to just provide a blanket statement when it comes to your equipment and gear as it really depends where you plan to fish along this 42 mile long creek. You can pick a nine foot rod where the creek is wide, but then you may need a shorter one for other sections. A good rule of thumb if you want to experience the full creek is to take a few different rods. You can enjoy fishing any time of year here, but the peak season is summer in case you'd rather visit during slow season.

The White Mountains

This area of the state is notorious for its towering fir and pine forests, and the elevation is about 6,500 feet. With a bit of trekking you can enjoy fishing that can be at up to 10,000 feet, giving you a true alpine experience. You can enjoy fishing in these waters any time of the year, but usually the best time is in the fall. As for what kind of fish you'll be catching, it will mainly be trout but you can also catch catfish and bass. As a special treat, you can catch Apache trout. What makes this fish so special is that you can't catch it anywhere else in the United States. They can be found in the Black River at the West Fork. The White Mountains ensure the fish stock stays high by using a fish hatchery system. The system is employed by the Arizona Game and Fish Department.

Apache Lake

While this lake may not be as well known to others, it's actually a wonderful spot for fly fishing. The lake can be found in central Arizona right on the Salt River. It is explained as a canyon lake that is very deep. It’s actually formed from runoff coming from the Salt River. It's fairly accessible from Roosevelt Dam, which is to the south, or Apache Junction which is on State Highway 88. The lake is pretty clear as it's not high in vegetation or brush. The fish you'll find are smallmouth bass and largemouth bass.

You'll find the water levels change up quite a bit here, from shallow to deep. It is recommended you use a light line due to the fact that the water is so easy to see through. In the deep water, a drop shot, spoons, and jigs are good choices. Meanwhile, if you're planning to stick to shallow waters, opt for jerkbaits, spinnerbaits, topwater, crankbaits, and even worms that are small in size.

Best Time to Fly Fish in Arizona

Thanks to the Arizona climate, no time is a bad time to go fly fishing in the state. There are always options that will offer fish. Instead, it’s more about the type of weather you prefer to be out in, and whether you want to fish without a crowd. Winter is the least crowded of all the months, but then you need to keep in mind it can be chilly depending on where you are. Most tend to agree that if there is a “best” time to fish in Arizona, it is during the fall, thanks to the comfortable air temperatures, the cool water temperatures, and the decrease in the crowds.

As for the hatches, these happen throughout the year depending on the insect. The midges, worms, shrimp, and eggs continue all year round. Meanwhile, the caddis is from about February to September, and the terrestrials are June through September.

What You Will Need When You Get There?

The fishing equipment you’ll want to pack is largely dependent on the depth of the water and the width of the water. Opt for longer nine foot rods if you have lots of space, and small rods for the more narrow streams and creeks in the state. Typically, you’ll be able to fish from the shore in most of the areas. In fact, in some places the shore is the only option. You may also want to pack a pair of good quality waders that are hip height. This is great for the more shallow creeks and rivers so you can get right in. Be well aware of the temperature variances through the year so you can dress accordingly.

As for the type of flies to use, again it depends on the fish you're planning to catch. If you're fishing for Apache trout, then dry and wet flies work well. For the brook trout, try a wet fly. Meanwhile, the brown trout and rainbow trout seem to like cheese, powerbait, salmon eggs, worms, corn, artificial flies, and artificial lures. Largemouth bass will respond to plastic worms and lures with jigs. You can use plastic worms for smallmouth bass, as well as streamer flies, and lures that are meant to look like minnows. If you fish during April through June specifically for catfish, use baits such as blood, liver, waterdogs, shrimp, shad, worms, anchovies, hot dogs, stink baits you have made yourself, and minnows.

Arizona Fishing Regulations

Of course, if you plan to do any fishing, you'll need to purchase a general fishing license, which can be done through the Arizona Game and Fish Department. Any person who plans to fish who is 10 years of age or older will require this license. It also needs to be carried with you while you are actually fishing. This license is available to residents of the state as well as non-residents. Keep in mind, as with any state, it’s also important to ask questions about restrictions and any catch and release laws.

Arizona is really a state all among itself in that it offers such a diverse selection of landscape and terrain that you can enjoy fishing in. It doesn’t matter if you’re a resident of the state just looking for a quiet day of fishing, or you’re with a group of buddies looking to combine a week of fishing with sightseeing and other outdoor activities. This state has all the basics covered and then some.